What are the molecules of life?
|– living- Compounds have any combination of Carbon and Hydrogen||– nonliving- compounds do NOT have carbon and hydrogen together|
|Ex: CH4, CH3OH||Ex: H2O, NH3, CO2|
-main source of energy for living things (First source)
-Your body gets energy from carbohydrates by the process called cellular respiration, which occurs in the mitochondria.
Key identification of Carbohydrates:
- H O ratio of 2:1
- End in “ose”
- Ex: glucose, sucrose, maltose
|Examples of simple sugars||Examples of carbohydrates|
|Glucose, maltose||Starch, cellulose, glycogen|
Lipid– a macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
Basic lipid information:
- Lipids are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen BUT are NOT found in 1:2:1 ratio.
- Usually a lot less oxygen atoms
- Basic lipids (simple liquids) are made from
- 3 fatty acids
- 1 gylcerol
- Lipids found in cell membranes are called phospholipids
Main functions of lipids:
- Energy storage
- structure of cell membranes
- chemical messengers are made from lipids (hormones)
|Proteins: A macromolecule that contains Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen. It is needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes.|
|Basic Protein Information:|
|1. Another name for proteins is polypeptides.|
|2. Proteins are broken down into amino acids.|
|3.The name of a bond between or within proteins is called a peptide bond.|
|4.When 2 amino acids combined they will connect and form a dipeptide.|
- Amino acids are made up of:
Amino group: (NH2)
Carboxyl group: (COOH)
R-groups show difference between each amino acid. There are 20 different R-groups, meaning there are 20 different amino acids.
General structure of every amino acid;
Main Functions of Proteins:
Enzymes are made from proteins.
–> Enzymes control all chemical reactions.
- Role of Enzymes:
- Chemical reactions require a specific enzyme
- Enzymes determine the rate of reaction.
- Structure of enzymes: large complex proteins and ends in –ase. (Example: maltose is hydrolyzed to maltase).
“Lock and Key” Model:
Factors Influencing Actions of Enzymes:
- Relative Amounts of Enzyme and Substrates
– Bigger molecule is made
– Water is a byproduct
– Bigger molecule is broken into smaller ones
– water is used for the breakdown
For both Hydrolysis and Dehydration Synthesis, enzymes are used to help the reaction occur.